The Nature of Science

Earth Science and Its Branches

Introduction to Earth’s Surface

Modeling Earth’s Surface

Topographic Maps

Using Satellites and Computers


Identification of Minerals

Formation of Minerals

Mining and Using Minerals

 Types of Rocks

Igneous Rocks

Sedimentary Rocks

Metamorphic Rocks

Earth’s Energy  

Nonrenewable Energy Resources

Renewable Energy Resources

 Inside Earth

Continental Drift

Seafloor Spreading

Theory of Plate Tectonics

Stress in Earth’s Crust

Nature of Earthquakes

Measuring and Predicting Earthquakes

Staying Safe in Earthquakes

 Volcanic Activity

Volcanic Eruptions

Types of Volcanoes

Igneous Landforms and Geothermal Activity



Erosion and Deposition by Flowing Water

Erosion and Deposition by Waves

Erosion and Deposition by Wind

Erosion and Deposition by Glaciers

Erosion and Deposition by Gravity


Relative Ages of Rocks

Absolute Ages of Rocks

The Origin of Earth

Early Earth

History of Earth’s Life Forms

Water on Earth

Surface Water


 Introduction to the Oceans

Ocean Movements

The Ocean Floor

Ocean Life

The Atmosphere

Energy in the Atmosphere

Layers of the Atmosphere

Air Movement

Weather and Water in the Atmosphere

Changing Weather


Weather Forecasting

Climate and Its Causes

World Climates

Climate Change


Cycles of Matter

The Human Population

 Loss of Soil

Pollution of the Land

Use and Conservation of Resources

Use and Conservation of Energy

Humans and the Water Supply

Water Pollution

Protecting the Water Supply

Air Pollution

Effects of Air Pollution

Reducing Air Pollution


Early Space Exploration

Recent Space Exploration

 Planet Earth

Earth’s Moon

The Sun

The Sun and the Earth-Moon System

Introduction to the Solar System

Inner Planets

Outer Planets

Other Objects in the Solar System



The Universe